Compatible plant–virus interactions result in dramatic changes of the plant transcriptome and morphogenesis, and are often associated with rapid alterations in plant hormone homeostasis and signalling. Auxin controls many aspects of plant organogenesis, development, and growth; therefore, plants can rapidly perceive and respond to changes in the cellular auxin levels. Auxin signalling is a tightly controlled process and, hence, is highly vulnerable to changes in the mRNA and protein levels of its components. There are several core nuclear components of auxin signalling. In the nucleus, the interaction of auxin response factors (ARFs) and auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins is essential for the control of auxin-regulated pathways. Aux/IAA proteins are negative regulators, whereas ARFs are positive regulators of the auxin response. The interplay between both is essential for the transcriptional regulation of auxin-responsive genes, which primarily regulate developmental processes but also modulate the plant immune system. Recent studies suggest that plant viruses belonging to different families have developed various strategies to disrupt auxin signalling, namely by (a) changing the subcellular localization of Aux/IAAs, (b) preventing degradation of Aux/IAAs by stabilization, or (c) inhibiting the transcriptional activity of ARFs. These interactions perturb auxin signalling and experimental evidence from various studies highlights their importance for virus replication, systemic movement, interaction with vectors for efficient transmission, and symptom development. In this microreview, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the interaction of plant viruses with auxin signalling components of their hosts.
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