Crop rotation and residue management affect soil organic carbon (SOC) pools through variations in tillage intensity among the used crops and the variable input of organic matter. In a long-term crop rotation trial near Göttingen, Germany, sugar beet yield differed depending on the preceding crop; further, yield of second winter wheat after sugar beet differed due to the removal or addition of sugar beet leaves and tops. Such findings might be related to differences in SOC stocks among the crop rotations and the amounts of sugar beet residues remaining on the field. In order to clarify the effects of crop rotation and residue management on SOC stocks under sugar beet, soil samples to determine SOC concentrations and soil bulk density were taken in sugar beet plots of the above-mentioned crop rotation trial in spring of 2018 and 2019 in 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm soil depth. The following crop rotations were sampled: (i) SB (sugar beet) – WW (winter wheat) – WW, (ii) SB – WW – SM (silage maize) and (iii) SB – WW – WOR (winter oilseed rape) – WW – WW – GP (grain pea). As catch crops, mustard was grown before SB and SM, and phacelia before GP. In addition, the first rotation (SB – WW – WW) was replicated in the trial to include a further variant in which all sugar beet residues (leaves and tops) were moved from one half of the plot to the other, resulting in the double amount or lack of residues when compared to the regular variant of this rotation. Preliminary results suggest higher SOC stocks with an increasing share of winter wheat in the crop rotation or a larger amount of beet residues as well as lowest SOC stocks in the crop rotation with maize.